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Vanderpoorten O, Peter Q, Challa PK, Keyser UF, Baumberg J, Kaminski CF & Knowles TPJ, "Scalable integration of nano-, and microfluidics with hybrid two-photon lithography"Microsystems & Nanoengineering (2019) 5(1):40 DOI |pdf


Nanofluidic devices have great potential for applications in areas ranging from renewable energy to human health. A crucial requirement for the successful operation of nanofluidic devices is the ability to interface them in a scalable manner with the outside world. Here, we demonstrate a hybrid two photon nanolithography approach interfaced with conventional mask whole-wafer UV-photolithography to generate master wafers for the fabrication of integrated micro and nanofluidic devices. Using this approach we demonstrate the fabrication of molds from SU-8 photoresist with nanofluidic features down to 230 nm lateral width and channel heights from micron to sub-100 nm. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to characterize the printing capabilities of the system and show the integration of nanofluidic channels into an existing microfluidic chip design. The functionality of the devices was demonstrated through super-resolution microscopy, allowing the observation of features below the diffraction limit of light produced using our approach. Single molecule localization of diffusing dye molecules verified the successful imprint of nanochannels and the spatial confinement of molecules to 200 nm across the nanochannel molded from the master wafer. This approach integrates readily with current microfluidic fabrication methods and allows the combination of microfluidic devices with locally two-photon-written nano-sized functionalities, enabling rapid nanofluidic device fabrication and enhancement of existing microfluidic device architectures with nanofluidic features.